International Private Transport Law


See for an overview of several treaties
www.unidroit.info



Transport by Road

Scope: Standardizing the conditions governing the contract for the international carriage of goods by road, particularly with respect to the documents used for such carriage and to the carrier's liability.This Convention appliesto every contract for the carriage of goods by road in vehicles for reward, when the place of taking over of the goods and the place designated for delivery, as specified in the contract, are situated in two different countries, of which at least one is a Contracting country, irrespective of the place of residence and the nationality of the parties.
Parties Albania, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Georgia, Iran, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Lebanon, Macedonia, Moldova, Mongolia, Montenegro, Morocco, Norway, Russian Federation, Serbia, Switzerland, Syria, Tajikistan, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Ukraine and Uzbekistan (and the following EU Member States:) Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom.

 



Transport by Rail

Scope: Standardizing the conditions governing the contract for the international carriage of goods by road, particularly with respect to the documents used for such carriage and to the carrier's liability.This Convention appliesto every contract for the carriage of goods by road in vehicles for reward, when the place of taking over of the goods and the place designated for delivery, as specified in the contract, are situated in two different countries, of which at least one is a Contracting country, irrespective of the place of residence and the nationality of the parties.
Parties Albania, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Georgia, Iran, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Lebanon, Macedonia, Moldova, Mongolia, Montenegro, Morocco, Norway, Russian Federation, Serbia, Switzerland, Syria, Tajikistan, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Ukraine and Uzbekistan (and the following EU Member States:) Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom.

 


Transport by Air

Scope: Dealing on an international level with the recording, transfer and recognition of titles and interests in aircraft.
Parties Algeria, Angola, Argentina, Australia, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brazil, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Côte d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Haiti, Iceland, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Italy, Kenya, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Lebanon, Libya, Luxembourg, Macedonia, Madagascar, Maldives, Mali, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Monaco, Morocco, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Qatar, Republic of the Congo, Rwanda, Senegal, Serbia, Seychelles, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Suriname, Switzerland, Tajikistan, Thailand, Togo, Tunisia, Turkmenistan, United States of America, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yugoslavia and Zimbabwe (and the following EU Member States): Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Netherlands, Portugal, Romania, Slovenia, Sweden and United Kingdom.

  • Convention for the Unification of Certain Rules for International Carriage by Air (Montreal, 28 May 1999)   [See for more information on Warsaw Convention: UNIDROIT-Website]

    Scope: This Convention applies to all international carriage of persons, baggage or cargo performed by aircraft for reward. It applies equally to gratuitous carriage by aircraft performed by an air transport undertaking.
    Parties Albania, Australia, Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belize, Benin, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil, Burkina Faso, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chile, China, Colombia, Cook Islands, Costa Rica, Côte d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Iceland, India, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kenya, Korea, Kuwait, Lebanon, Macedonia, Madagascar, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Mauritius, Mexico, Moldova, Mongolia, Mozambique, Namibia, New Zealand, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Qatar, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Singapore, South Africa, Sudan, Swaziland, Switzerland, Syria, Tanzania, Togo, Tonga, Turkey, Ukraine, United Arab Emirates, United States, Uruguay, Vanuatu and Zambia (and the following EU Member States:) Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, European Community, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Monaco, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom.

  • EC Regulation (No 2027/97) of 9 October 1997 on air carrier liability in respect of the carriage of passengers and their baggage by air (OJ 1997/L 285, 17), consolidated text after the amendment by EC Regulation (No 889/2002) of 13 May (OJ 2002 L 140, 2)   [See for more information: EUROPE.EU-Website]

    Scope: This Regulation lays down the obligations of Community air carriers in relation to liability in the event of accidents to passengers for damage sustained in the event of death or wounding of a passenger or any other bodily injury suffered by a passenger, if the accident which caused the damage so sustained took place on board an aircraft or in the course of any of the operations of embarking or disembarking. This Regulation also clarifies some insurance requirements for Community air carriers. In addition, this Regulation sets down some requirements on information to be provided by air carriers established outside the Community which operate to, from or within the Community. After the amendment by EC Regulation (No 889/2002) the Community arrangements are fully in line with the rules of the Montreal Convention of 28 May 1999. The aim is to harmonise liability limits and legal defences in respect of European carriers, irrespective of the route (internal, intra-Community, international) on which the accident occurs.
    Parties: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom.


Transport by sea

  • International Convention for the Unification of Certain Rules of Law relating to Bills of Lading ("Hague Rules", Brussels 1924)

    Scope: This Convention provides uniform rules regarding the carriage of goods by sea between ports in different (Contracting) States, including the effects of a bill of lading.
    Parties: Algeria, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Australia, Bahamas, Bangladesh (Com. Code), Barbados, Belize, Bermuda, Bolivia, Brazil (Com. Code), Cameroon, Cape Verde, Caymen Islands, China-Macao, Columbia (in part), Croatia, Cuba, Dominica, Ecuador, Egypt, Fiji, Gambia, Ghana, Gibraltar, Goa, Grenada, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Hong Kong, India (Com. Code), Iran, Israel, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Japan, Kenya, Kiribati, Kuwait, Lebanon, Madagascar, Malaysia, Mauritius, Monaco, Montserrat, Mozambique, Nauru, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan (Com. Code), Panama (Com. Code), Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Russia (Com. Code), São Tomé and Príncipe, Sarawak, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Solomon Islands, Somalia, Sri Lanka, St. Kitts - Nevis, St Lucia, St. Vincent and Grenadines, Switzerland, Syria, Taiwan, Tanzania, Timor, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Turks and Caicos, Turkey, Tuvalu, United States, Yugoslavia and Zaire (Congo) (and the following EU Member States:) Belgium, Bulgaria (Com. Code), Cyprus, Denmark, Estonia (Com. Code), Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Netherlands, Malta (Com. Code), Poland, Portugal, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden and United Kingdom.

  • International Convention for the Unification of Certain Rules of Law relating to Bills of Lading ("Hague-Visby Rules", Brussels in 1968)

    Scope: This his Convention provides uniform rules regarding the carriage of goods by sea between ports in different (Contracting) States, including the effects of a bill of lading. The Hague Rules (see above) became known as the Hague/Visby Rules on the adoption of The Protocol to Amend the International Convention for the Unification of Certain Rules of Law Relating to Bills of Lading. This protocol was adopted to amend the original treaty in Brussels in 1968. It came into force on June 23 1977. These amendments were conducted under the auspices of the Comité Maritime International, and were largely negotiated in a conference in Stockholm in 1963. They do not stand alone as an independent set of rules, but act only to modify the pre-existing Hague structure. The rules are therefore known as the Hague/Visby Rules. The Hague/Visby Rules were further amended by the Protocol Amending the International Convention for the Unification of Certain Rules of Law Relating to Bills of Lading (August 25, 1924, as Amended by the Protocol of February 23, 1968). This further amending protocol was adopted in Brussels on December 21, 1979 and came into force on February 14, 1984. The main development of this amendment was to adopt a new basic accounting unit, which had been poincaré gold francs, but would now be Special Drawing Rights of the International Monetary Fund.
    As between Parties to the Hague-Visby Rules, these rules are decisive in their mutual relationship. A Party to the Hague-Visby Rules has, however, no duty to apply the provisions of the Hague-Visby Rules to bills of lading issued in a State which is a Party to the Hague Rules but which is not a Party to the Hague-Visby Rules. In such event the Hague Rules are decisive.
    Parties: Argentina (in part), Bahrein (in part), Bermuda, Canada (Com. Code), Cayman Islands, China (in part), Croatia, Ecuador, Egypt, Georgia, Gibraltar, Goa (Com. Code with limits), Hong Kong, India (Com. Code with limits), Indonesia (Com. Code), Israel (Com. Code), Japan, Korea South (Com. Code), Kuwait (Com. Code), Lebanon, Liberai (Com. Code), Mexico, Montserrat, New Zealand, Norway, Oman (Com. Code), Russia, Singapore, Sri Lanka, South Africa (Com. Code), Switzerland, Syria, Taiwan (Com. Code), Thailand (Com. Code), Tonga, Turks and Caicos, Ukraine (Com. Code), United Arabic Emirates (Com. Code), Venezuela (Com. Code), Vietnam (Com. Code), Yemen (Com. Code), Yugoslavia (Com. Code) (and the following EU Member States:) Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany (internally), Greece, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal (in part), Spain, Sweden and United Kingdom.

  • United Nations Convention on the Carriage of Goods by Sea ("Hamburg Rules", 1978)

    Scope: This Convention provides uniform rules regarding the carriage of goods by sea between ports in different (Contracting) States, including the effects of a bill of lading. Pursuant to Article 31 of the Convention, the entry into force of the Rotterdam Rules coupled to denunciation of the Hamburg Rules and at the latest five years after entry into force of this Convention, ratifying States should denounce the Conventions governing the Hague-Visby Rules. The most important countries, however, still apply the Hague-Visby Rules. The Netherlands is neither a party to the Hamburg Rules.
    Parties: Albania, Barbados, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Chile, Dominican Republic, Egypt, Gambia, Georgia. Guinea, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Malawi, Morocco, Nigeria, Paraguay, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Syria, Tanzania, Tunisia, Uganda and Zambia (and the following EU-Member States:) Austria, Czech Republic, Hungary and Romania.

  • United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Carriage of Goods Wholly or Partly by Sea ("Rotterdam Rules", 2009)    [See for more information: Unicitral-Website]

    Scope: Adoption of new rules to modernise the rules for the international carriage by sea, taken into account as well transport only partially by sea and modern transport practices, including containerization, door-to-door transport contracts and the use of electronic transport documents.
    Parties: Spain (The following States have signed, yet not ratified the Rotterdam Rules: Armenia, Cameroon, Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo, , Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Madagascar, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Senegal, Switzerland, Togo, United States of America and the following EU-Member States: Denmark, France, Greece, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Poland and Sweden) [20 actions are required for entry into force].

  • International Convention on Salvage (IMO, Londen, 1989)    [See for more information]

    Scope: Uniform international rules regarding rendering of assistance to ships and its cargo at sea (salvage operations)
    Parties: Albania, Australia, Azerbaijan, Brazil, Canada, China, Congo, Croatia, Dominica, Ecuador, Egypt, Georgia, Guinea, Guyana, Iceland, India, Iran, Jordan, Kenya, Kiribati, Liberia, Marshall Islands, Mauritius, Mexico, New Zealand, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Russian Federation, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saudi Arabia, Sierra Leone, Switzerland, Syria, Tonga, Tunisia, United Arab Emirates, United States of America and Vanuatu (and the following EU Member States: Belgium, Bulgaria, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden and United Kingdom.

  • York-Antwerp Rules (IMO, Londen, 1989)    [See for more information]

    Scope: A set of internationally-accepted rules, first published in 1890, proposing points of detail in the application of the maritime law principle of general average. The York-Antwerp Rules regulate the method of allocating general average losses between ship owners and cargo owners when a part of the ship or of the cargo must be ditched in order to escape from a dangerous situation.
    Parties: There are no official Contracting Parties, since the York Antwerp Rules are no International Convention or Treaty. Maritime law includes international agreements, national laws on shipping, and private agreements voluntarily adhered to by the parties involved in shipping contracts. The York-Antwerp Rules of General Average are the best known example of such private agreements, as they establish the rights and obligations of the parties when cargo must be jettisoned from a ship. Many States refer in their national law to the applicability of the York-Antwerp Rules or have incorporated provisions therein which are similar to these rules. The York-Antwerp Rules may have effect as well on account of unwritten customary law.

  • International Convention on Civil Liability for Bunker Oil Pollution Damage (Londen, 2001)    [See for more information]

    Scope: To adopt uniform international rules and procedures for determining questions of liability and providing adequate, prompt and effective compensation in cases of damage caused by pollution resulting from the escape or discharge of bunker oil from ships. Summary of provisions: The Convention was adopted in the framework of the International Maritime Organisation (IMO). The convention is modelled on the International Convention on Civil Liability for Oil Pollution Damage, 1969. As with that convention, a key requirement in the bunkers convention is the need for the registered owner of a vessel to maintain compulsory insurance cover. Another key provision is the requirement for direct action - this would allow a claim for compensation for pollution damage to be brought directly against an insurer. The Convention requires ships over 1,000 gross tonnage to maintain insurance or other financial security, such as the guarantee of a bank or similar financial institution, to cover the liability of the registered owner for pollution damage in an amount equal to the limits of liability under the applicable national or international limitation regime, but in all cases, not exceeding an amount calculated in accordance with the Convention on Limitation of Liability for Maritime Claims, 1976.
    Parties: Albania, Antigua and Barbuda, Australia, Bahamas, Barbados, Bermuda (UK), China, Croatia, Egypt, Ethiopia, Hong Kong, Iran, Jamaica, Jordan, Kiribati, Korea Republic, Liberia, Malaysia, Marshall Islands, Montenegro, Morocco, Norway, Panama, Russian Federation, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Samoa, Serbia, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Syria, Tonga, Tuvalu, Vanuatu. Brazil and Canada have signed, but not yet ratified it. (The following EU Member States are a Party as well:) Bulgaria, Cyprus, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, lovenia, Spain, and United Kingdom. Sweden has signed, but not yet ratified it. The Member States of the European Community subject to Community rules in this area shall apply Community rules on jurisdiction in their mutual relations insofar as the pollution damage is caused in a geographical area referred to in Article 2 of the Convention of a Member State of the European Community and the defendant is domiciled in a Member State of the European Community. Judgments referred to in Article 10.1 of the Convention shall, when given by a Court of a Member State of the European Community subject to Community rules in this area, be recognised and enforced in another Member State of the European Community according to such Community rules (see Proposal OJ 051 E , 26/02/2002 P. 0371 - 0371).

  • International Convention on Civil Liability for Oil Pollution Damage (Brussels, 1969)    [See for more information]

    Scope: To ensure that adequate compensation is available to persons who suffer damage caused by pollution resulting from the escape or discharge of oil from ships and to standardise international rules and procedures for determining questions of liability and adequate compensation in such areas.
    Parties: Albania, Algeria, Antigua and Barbuda, Australia, Azerbaijan, Bahamas, Bahrain, Barbados, Belize, Benin, Brazil, Brunei, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Chile, China, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cte d'Ivoire, Croatia, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Fiji, Gabon, Gambia, Georgia, Ghana, Guatemala, Guyana, Honduras, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kiribati, Korea Republic, Kuwait, Lebanon, Liberia, Libya, Madagascar, Malaysia, Maldives, Marshall Islands, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Monaco, Mongolia, Montenegro, Morocco, Mozambique, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Peru, Qatar, Russian Federation, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, So Tom e Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Serbia, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Solomon Islands, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Switzerland, Syria, Tonga, Tunesia, Turkmenistan, Tuvalu, United Arab Emirates, United States of America, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Yemen, Yugoslavia (and the following EU Member States:) Belgium, Cyprus, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden and United Kingdom.

  • International Convention on Civil Liability for Oil Pollution Damage (as amended in 1992)    [See for more information]

    Scope: To amend the 1969 International Convention on Civil Liability for Oil Pollution Damage. Summary of provisions: The Protocol was adopted in the framework of the International Maritime Organisation (IMO). Paragraphs 1 and 9 of Article 5 of the Convention are amended with regard to the method of calculation of limitation of liability.
    Parties: Albania, Algeria, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Australia, Azerbaijan, Bahamas, Bahrain, Barbados, Belize, Benin, Brunei, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Cook Islands, Croatia, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Fiji, Gambia, Georgia, Ghana, Grenada, Guinea, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Israel, Jamaica, Japan, Kenya, Kiribati, Korea Republic, Kuwait, Lebanon, Liberia, Madagascar, Malaysia, Maldives, Marshall Islands, Mauritius, Mexico, Moldova, Monaco, Mongolia, Montenegro, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, New Zealand, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Palau, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Peru, Philippines, Qatar, Russian Federation, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Samoa, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Serbia, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Solomon Islands, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Switzerland, Syria, Tanzania, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunesia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Tuvalu, Ukraine, United Arab Emirates, Uruguay, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen (and the following EU Member States:) Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden and United Kingdom.

  • Convention on Limitation of Liability for Maritime Claims, 1976 (London, 1976)    [See for more information]

    Scope: Uniform rules relating to the limitation of liability for maritime claims, like (a) claims in respect of loss of life or personal injury or loss of or damage to property (including damage to harbour works, basins and waterways and aids to navigation), occurring on board or in direct connexion with the operation of the ship or with salvage operations, and consequential loss resulting therefrom, (b) claims in respect of loss resulting from delay in the carriage by sea of cargo, passengers or their luggage, (c) claims in respect of other loss resulting from infringement of rights other than contractual rights, occurring in direct connexion with the operation of the ship or salvage operations, (d) claims in respect of the raising, removal, destruction or the rendering harmless of a ship which is sunk, wrecked, stranded or abandoned, including anything that is or has been on board such ship, (e) claims in respect of the removal, destruction or the rendering harmless of the cargo of the ship and (f) claims of a person other than the person liable in respect of measures taken in order to avert or minimize loss for which the person liable may limit his liability in accordance with this Convention, and further loss caused by such measures.
    Parties: Albania, Algeria, Antigua and Barbuda, Australia, Azerbaijan, Bahamas, Barbados, Benin, China, Congo Republic, Cook Islands, Croatia, Dominica, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Georgia, Guyana, India, Jamaica, Japan, Kiribati, Liberia, Marshall Islands, Mauritius, Mexico, Mongolia, New Zealand, Nigeria, Norway, Saint Lucia, Samoa, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Switzerland, Syria, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Turkey, Tuvalu, United Arab Emirates, Vanuatu, Yemen (and the following EU Member States:) Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom.

  • Protocol of 1996 to amend the Convention on Limitation of Liability for Maritime Claims, 1976 (LLMC Protocol) (London, 1996)    [See for more information]

    Scope: The Protocol serves to amend the Convention on Limitation of Liability for Maritime Claims, done at London on 19 November 1976, to provide for enhanced compensation and to establish a simplified procedure for updating the limitation amounts. Not all Contracting Parties to the Convention have accepted the Protocol.
    Parties: Albania, Antigua and Barbuda, Australia, Canada, Cook Islands, Croatia, Iceland, India, Jamaica, Japan, Liberia, Malaysia, Marshall Islands, Mongolia, Norway, Palau, Russian Federation, Saint Lucia, Samoa, Sierra Leone, Syria, Tonga, Turkey, Tuvalu (and the following EU Member States:) Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Spain, Sweden and United Kingdom.

 


Transport by inland waterway vessel

  • General Average Rules IVR including Commentary (Gent, 1 June 2006)    [See for more information the website of: www.ivr.nl]

    Scope: Legal unification in inland shipping by issuing uniform rules for general average on inland waterways. cases, already in 1956 the so-called "IVR Rhine Rules" were drawn up and recommended for international Rhine shipping. In the actual practice this has for decades led to the application of uniform rules in the interest of inland navigation and of insurers. With the realisation of the connection between Rhine and Danube, IVR has concentrated her activities on a rapprochement between East and West and pursuing European unification. In order to recommend an analogue application of the IVR Rhine Rules also in Middle- and East European countries, the IVR Board of Management decided, as proposed by the Average Committee, to change the name of the Rhine Rules into "IVR General Average Rules". Consequently, in the interest of all parties concerned application of these rules is recommended.
    Parties: There are no official Contracting Parties, since the General Average Rules IVR (and its forerunner the so-called "IVR Rhine Rules") are no International Convention or Treaty. The Rules are private agreements that can voluntarily be adhered by parties involved in shipping contracts, here over inland waterways.

  • United Nations Convention on the Carriage of Goods by Sea ("Hamburg Rules", 1978)

    Scope: This Convention provides uniform rules regarding the carriage of goods by sea between ports in different (Contracting) States, including the effects of a bill of lading. Pursuant to Article 31 of the Convention, the entry into force of the Rotterdam Rules coupled to denunciation of the Hamburg Rules and at the latest five years after entry into force of this Convention, ratifying States should denounce the Conventions governing the Hague-Visby Rules. The most important countries, however, still apply the Hague-Visby Rules. The Netherlands is neither a party to the Hamburg Rules.
    Parties: Albania, Barbados, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Chile, Dominican Republic, Egypt, Gambia, Georgia. Guinea, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Malawi, Morocco, Nigeria, Paraguay, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Syria, Tanzania, Tunisia, Uganda and Zambia (and the following EU-Member States:) Austria, Czech Republic, Hungary and Romania.


    Miscellaneous